Saturday, August 31, 2019
Symbolism in William GoldingÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËLord of the FliesÃ¢â¬â¢ Definition: A symbol is something that is itself as well as something else. In literature it means literal or objective sense coupled with abstract meaning. Symbolism refers to serious and extensive use of symbols in a work of literature. Symbolism in Lord of the Flies: The novel is rich in symbolism. A host of different interpretations of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolism Ã¢â¬â political, psychological and religious Ã¢â¬â exists. We will look at some of the prominent symbols employed by Golding and try harmonizing the different interpretations. Since symbolism is an evocative device to communicate the theme of a literary piece, we must first agree on the theme of Lord of the Flies. Theme: Evil inherent in man seems to be the central idea of the novel. It may recall the Christian notion of the Ã¢â¬Ëoriginal sinÃ¢â¬â¢ or the idea of the failure of civilization as seen during the Nazi Holocaust or a general pessimistic view of human nature. It may be all the three combined. A group of boys aged 6 to 12 find themselves alone on an island, without adult supervision. At first they try to organize themselves on the pattern of the civilized world they have known. The attempt fails and most of them regress into savagery and animal existence. The novel was deliberately patterned on the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s classic Ã¢â¬ËThe Coral IslandÃ¢â¬â¢ by R. M. Ballantyne. Only, it turns BallantyneÃ¢â¬â¢s theme on its head. Whereas Ballantyne made the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s isolation on the island a pleasant interlude in a continued life of civilized existence, Golding shows how thin the veneer of civilization really is and how the animal nature of man breaks through in just a few weeks. It is not so much moral judgment as recognition of the essential tragedy of mankind Ã¢â¬â its intellectual and spiritual nature losing out to its animal nature again and again. Important Symbols: 1. The Scar: The novel starts with the mention of a scar in the jungle. We learn (or rather, surmise) later that it is a swath cut by the falling Ã¢â¬Ëpassenger tubeÃ¢â¬â¢ in which the children were travelling. The word scar appears in the text without this preliminary information and serves to create atmosphere. The metaphor prepares us for the horrible things to come. In itself it is also the symbol of manÃ¢â¬â¢s disruptive influence on his world. 2. The Conch: It makes its appearance as an accidental find of Ralph and Piggy on the beach. It soon assumes importance as Ralph, on PiggyÃ¢â¬â¢s advice, blows it to gather the survivors. Ralph is elected leader of the group mainly because he was the one in possession of the conch. From here onwards the conch becomes a symbol of law and order. At meetings the speaker has to hold it in his hands. It gives him the privilege of being heard uninterrupted. Order starts breaking down in the fifth chapter when Jack speaks without holding it. Later, breakdown of order is signalled by Jack snatching it from Ralph in the eighth chapter. In the tenth chapter Jack raids the shelter occupied by Ralph and Piggy to rob Piggy of his glasses. But he does not bother to take the conch away. It is no longer important. In the eleventh chapter the conch is destroyed, symbolizing the complete rout of order at the hands of chaos. 3. The Man with the Megaphone (Grown-ups): When Piggy meets Ralph, his first question is, Ã¢â¬Å"Where is the man with the megaphone? A few pages later the question is repeated by Jack, Ã¢â¬Å"Where is the man with the trumpet? Ã¢â¬ This, we can assume, was the man in charge of the boys in the aeroplane He stands for authority and control which has suddenly been removed by the crash. A grown-up appears again only at the end in the form of the naval officer who saves the life of Ralph without realizing the fact and brings an e nd to the chaos. But conversely, the adult is the cause of the boys being there in the first place. The war raging outside is nothing but the conflict on the island on a much grander scale. The appearance of the naval officer at close suggests that civilization has been given another chance, despite the bleak outlook. 4. Beast from Air: In the sixth chapter another adult appears on the scene Ã¢â¬â a dead parachutist. He has apparently evacuated himself from a warplane that has been hit. The man crashes to his death at the top of the hill on the island. He, with his parachute, is taken to be a mysterious supernatural beast by the boys among whom the talk of a snake-like beast of the jungle is already rampant. The dead parachutist is not, however, just an extension of the ghost metaphor. He also represents the historical past intruding on the scene and influencing it in a profound manner. For the boys the historical past is the war they left behind. For humanity it would be the past of man as an insidious influence in his present. 5. The Beast Ã¢â¬â Lord of the Flies: The title of the novel is itself symbolic. The phrase is a literal translation of the Hebrew Ã¢â¬ËBeelzebubÃ¢â¬â¢, one of the demons named after a philistine god. Later the term was often used in Christianity as a name for the Devil. The metaphor is one of regression (in its original sense of paganism) and evil (in its later meaning of the Devil). In the novel one of the younger boys, who is referred to as Ã¢â¬Ëthe boy with the birthmark on his faceÃ¢â¬â¢, tells the others about having seen a snake-like beast on the trees. Though Ralph tries to allay their fears as unfounded, the belief in the beast persists. It is strengthened by the unexplained disappearance of the boy with the birthmark. It is reinforced by the Ã¢â¬Ëbeast from airÃ¢â¬â¢ mentioned above, so mush so that even Ralph and Piggy start entertaining the possibility of a beast. Jack, half believing himself, uses the fear cleverly to keep his followers under control. He makes the ritual sacrifice of a wild sow to the beast and lets the head of the animal hang on a stick, ostensibly to appease the beast. Only Simon does not believe in the existence of a beast. In his wanderings in the forest he comes across the head of the sow and the entrails of the animal which have attracted a lot of flies by now. He has a hallucination in which the head appears to him as lord of the flies and speaks to him. The symbolism of the beast is also stated in this imaginary conversation in so many words, as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"You knew, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t you? I am part of you?Ã¢â¬ ¦ I am the reason why itÃ¢â¬â¢s no go? Why things are what they are? Ã¢â¬ The beast is within man, not without. It is the darkness in menÃ¢â¬â¢s hearts. It is their primitive nature, hidden behind a thin layer of civilization. 6. The Signal Fire and the Shelters on the Beach: The signal fire and the shelters symbolize ordered society, civilization and hope. They are contrasted with the barbaric and blood-thirsty hunts. The signal fire is RalphÃ¢â¬â¢s idea. He believes that the children will be rescued soon and therefore there should be a smoke signal going all the time for a passing ship to spot. Piggy, who is more of a realist, realizes that those who were expected to know about the children are all dead and it may be a long time before rescue comes. So he suggests the building of shelters. Though both symbols together stand for civilization against barbarism, there is this subtle difference between them, arising as they do from their originatorsÃ¢â¬â¢ differing perceptions of the situation. 7. The Hunts and Mock Hunts: Together with painted faces and long hair the hunts and mock hunts symbolize regression into primitive savagery. The hunters not only seem to have lost all hope of returning to civilization, but they seem to actually enjoy the prospect and neglect to keep the signal fire burning. The hunts can be interpreted as symbolizing the boys' primal urges or even anarchy. Soon after the hunts start, they cease to be a necessary activity aimed at gathering food. The lust for blood becomes more important. Ceremonies and chants invented by the hunters similarly denote regression. The mock hunts of Chapters 4 and 7 are manifestations of regression too. The mock hunts serve another purpose. In Chapter 4 the mock hunt is a mild affair, performed largely for fun. In the seventh chapter it turns into a violent affair in which the boy playing the hunted animal suffers injuries. Thus the mock hunts define the regression of the hunters as civilized humans. The scene in Chapter 7 also shows the good and sensible Ralph feeling the excitement of the mock hunt, thus showing how evil can take hold of any human, unless resisted. 8. Painted Faces and Long Hair: This is the heading of Chapter 4. The degeneration of the boys' way of life is symbolized by clay-and- charcoal masks and long hair. When concealed by masks, the hunters, especially Ralph, seem to have new personalities as they forget the taboos of society that once restrained them from giving in to their natural urges. When Jack first paints his face to his satisfaction, he suddenly becomes a new, savage person. Ã¢â¬Å"He began to dance and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling. He capered toward Bill, and the mask was a thing of its own, behind which Jack hid, liberated from shame and self-consciousnessÃ¢â¬ . The feeling of liberation that results from wearing the masks allows many of the boys to participate in the barbaric pig hunts, the savage ceremonies and the mock hunts. 9. The Island: Those who incline towards a religious interpretation of the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s symbolism maintain that the island is the symbol for the Garden of Eden, which is touched by original sin on contact with the human race. This interpretation may have some merit. But the symbolism can be equally validly interpreted as the state of nature to which the civilized children have been returned. It provides the setting for the opening up of their fundamental urges. 10. The Characters: The principal characters Ã¢â¬â Ralph, Piggy, Simon, Jack and Roger Ã¢â¬â symbolize certain attitudes and qualities. Ralph and Piggy are on the side pf law and order. Jack and Roger represent primitive urges and tyranny. Simon is a mystic who has clearer view of reality than the intellectual Piggy, the sensible Jack or the manipulative Jack. But we have to be careful not to over-emphasize the point. Otherwise the realistic and believable quality of the characters will be compromised. The symbolism lies more in how the characters grow or regress rather than in their basic make-up. JackÃ¢â¬â¢s character is the most significant from this point of view. From the leader of a choir group he regresses into the leader of a violent and primitive group which calls itself a Ã¢â¬ËtribeÃ¢â¬â¢. The above list of symbols is by no means exhaustive. The novel is replete with metaphors and symbols. Lord of the Flies is called a twentieth century allegory. It is also one of the most carefully crafted novels of the century. In consequence the careful reader can find a symbol on almost every page. s
Friday, August 30, 2019
Industry downsizing has been a major part of the corporate world, even government agencies are downsizing. GovernmentExecutive. com Ã¢â¬Å"covers the business of the federal government and its huge departments and agencies Ã¢â¬â dozens of which dwarf the largest institutions in the private sectorÃ¢â¬ on its website. Read the assigned Government Executive article and answer the following questions: Which industries have substantially reduced fixed cost commitments? Do you believe this reduction in costs has substantially impaired the ability of these industries to meet the needs of their customers? It appears that both privite and public sectors are reducing fixed cost. According to Ciccotello and Green, the technology, auto, and government industries have substantially reduced fixed costs. The specific examples referenced in the article, IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢s Downsizing Lessons, were IBM, Honda, and the DoD; in some cases the downsizing has been beneficial and in others it has been detrimental. DoD has taken the lead in the current round of federal downsizing, instituting several initiatives to reduce permanent staff positions, rely more on temporary help and outsource production. Honda made large cuts in its permanent engineering staff in response to the more volatile sales environment for automobiles since the mid-1980s. These cuts left Honda unable to keep pace with its competitors in the design of new automobiles. The results have been the loss of market share and profit for Honda, which now faces the difficult task of trying to catch up. The consequence of cutting fixed costs too far could be even more dangerous for a government enterprise like DoD. The computer industry is rapidly changing technology is causing companies to reassess large, fixed-cost commitments. As a result, evidence of decreasing operating leverage in this industry abounds. Many large computer firms have made dramatic cuts in permanent staff. Standard and Poor's reports that IBM had more than 370,000 full-time employees in 1990 and fewer than 270,000 in 1994. At the same time, computer firms have greatly increased outsourcing of products and leasing of equipment. Both of these trends reduce the requirement for large in-house expenditures on personnel, plant and equipment. Outsourcing and leasing make the enterprise more nimble, more able to quickly adapt to a rapidly changing sales environment.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Describe the scene at a train station It is 8 oÃ¢â¬â¢clock in the morning at Liverpool train station, the busiest hour throughout the whole day, itÃ¢â¬â¢s also known as the rush hour. Trains of all imaginable colours gradually draw to a halt, causing a slightly burned smell from the brakes. As the automatic doors fly open, continuous flows start of people shoving and pushing, rushing to get off into the already crowded station. The noise of the tannoy is hidden beneath the murmur of the crowds of people.Mothers franticly scan for their lost children, while groups of people and tourists rush out eagerly ready to explore the city. Teenagers huddled together by the walls giggle to each other while on their new, shiny blackberry mobiles. People sigh due to the now prolonged waiting for the toilets as the queues start to grow. Unfortunately the smell of urine diffuses into the air from the toilets. Business people in their smart suits and briefcases march through the station, obliviou s to anything that is going on.Impatient men and women stomp their fingers on the touch screen ticket machine, hoping that by doing so it will work faster. They then become even more frustrated when they then discover the escalator is not working and have to drag their entire luggage down it. Before the exits, there are many food and drink shops, such as McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Starbucks. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a fighting battle for smells as people walk through the centre. Greasy fries and burger smells emmiting from MsDonalds, followed by coffee and cakes from Starbucks, then Pizza and burned wedges from Pizza Hut.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Team Diversity - Essay Example In the United States, Children grow up with an positive and challenging life where TRY AND TRY AGAIN TILL YOU SUCCEED is the motto because the US territory is WIDE enough for challenges. Some of the supervisors from the other countries looked at the loss during the previous year as proof that normal life is really hard down there because there is literally no elbow room in their place for research & development. To ease the situation, I gave each member a cultural (Schermerhorn, 1997) and historical nutshell report of the cultures and traditions of each country to all members of the meeting. It was explained that based on Appendix A below, the US has a high creativity index. It is recommended that the five step program(Strickland, 19997) be implemented to eliminate mistrust and misunderstanding among the different cultures. Firth, all supervisors are to TEACH the other members of their cultures so work will go smoothly and prevent stereotyping. Second, the cultural structures have to be integrated such as no more male or female job. Third, cultural groups barriers must be broken down so that there is only ONE group of many cultures.
Law - Assignment Example (Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Company 1893 1 qb 256). Acceptance is a final and unqualified expression of assent to the terms of an offer [G.H. Treitel, The Law of Contract, 10th edn, p.16]. The Employer, Conventina Motors, has offered Steven to work for them as a parts distribution salesman. And Steven has accepted their employment offer to work for them. This means a proper contract has been established between Conventina Motors and Steven. Consideration: This means something bargained for and received by a promisor from a promisee. The common types of consideration consists of real or personal property, a return promise, some act, or a forbearance. The consideration by Conventina Motors towards Steven may not only include his salary but also other responsibilities like StevenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental, health, emotional and/or environmental safety etc. And likewise StevenÃ¢â¬â¢s consideration towards the company can be his loyalty, responsibility and promise to follow the rules and regulation binding on him due to the employment contract. Capacity: In contract law, capacity means a persons ability to satisfy the elements required to enter binding contracts. For example, it often requires a person to have reached a minimum age and to have soundness of mind. Conventina Motors is an established company and Steven is an adult. Therefore both fulfill the required capacity rules to enter into a valid contract. Legality: The contract made, must be enforceable by law. Only then, the contract is said to be legally binding. Conventina Motors is an established company having proper employment contracts with its workers, therefore the contract with Steven is legally binding and has certain obligations that needs to be followed by both the parties in the contract. As discussed above, Conventina Motors and Steven have entered into a legal employment contract with each other. The contract includes rules and obligations that
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Semiotic interpretation of an image - Essay Example With the signs in photos open for interpretation, an observer can be able to appreciate the denotative and connotative signification. The caption that has been provided is a photo of the Olympic event. It captures the moment where the participants involved are awarded with medals after victory in the sports they had participated. When awarding the Olympic participant, the protocol is that the winner is awarded with a gold medal then the first runner up is awarded with silver followed by brass for the second runner up. After receiving the medals, the next stage involved playing of the national anthem in front of everyone. Only the person who takes the gold is awarded the chance of having his or her countryÃ¢â¬â¢s national anthem played. From the background of the picture provided, there is a possibility of stating that the event is not a recent one and may have taken place somewhere in the middle 1900s. An aspect that brings out the background of the photo is the Ã¢â¬Ëblack powerÃ¢â¬â¢ salute that the two of the participants posed. During the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, there were many instances where the black Americans fought against what they believed to be racism from the original citizens in the country. From this, it is clear to deduce that the time the Olympic event in the picture is taking place might be the 1968 summer Olympics. This aspect then is possible to award the photo with both the denotative and connotative values (Bathes, 35). There is a connotative value that the Ã¢â¬Ëblack power saluteÃ¢â¬â¢ poses awards the photo. This value is in the unity of the black Americans. The two Olympic participants can be said to be sending a message to the other black people. The message here is not only directed to the black Americans but to all the black people all over the world since Olympics is an international event. The first African country to participate in the Olympics was South Africa in the year 1904; this was under the
Monday, August 26, 2019
How Has Professional Learning Changed and Why - Essay Example It is very important to change the professional learning pattern with the passage of time to compete in the challenging world. In other words, learning is no more just a word; it is associated with real life experiences, case studies and practical exposure which improve the process of learning. Professional learning has transcended beyond the traditional learning processes of merely classroom learning and in recent times the aspect professional community has taken a centre stage. Professional learning community provides an opportunity to augment staff development related approach (SEDL, 2012). The objective of this paper is to explore professional development for New Times and to put light on the area of professional learning, its changing patterns and the reasons for its changing pattern. There are various issues, contradictions and dilemmas which would be considered while attaining the objective of the essay. The Issues In HERDSA International Conference, there will be many issues discussed regarding the learning process. The conference will be held mainly to focus on creating and maintaining peer connections, for establishing community links, enriching the interdisciplinary connections, linking the students for success and connecting them with research. The main subject matter of HERDSA International Conference is connections in Higher Education, which is one of the important fundamentals for professional learning. In has been observed that higher education has altered significantly in recent times with relevant changes in policies, leadership, research approach and student outcomes that are followed to make the education process more pertinent to Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Certain steps that are followed in altered process of higher education include sustaining as well as creating peer connections, emphasizing on community based connections in learning and focusing on interdisciplinary connections among others. Therefore, in order to as sess the significance of these issues further in professional learning the conference is conducted specially for leaders, researchers, students, policy makers and teachers who are associated in higher education sector (Conference Design Pty Ltd, 2012). Professional learning process engages the professional development for the enhancement of skills and knowledge. The Ã¢â¬ËAustralian Flexible Learning FrameworkÃ¢â¬â¢ has made a commitment towards for maintaining and developing vocational education along with training for the professionals. The endeavor behind this is to keep on side by side with changing technological approach in the field of professional learning. The framework has been prepared keeping in consideration the ongoing and upcoming developments in the resources, research along with ideas. World has changed dramatically in terms of innovation and process. The computer and internet have become key components of present day world and people have to develop themselves in order to compete in this world. E-learning has become a part of professional learning. Therefore, it would not be wrong to suggest that learning has changed from a traditional concept to a modern concept (Commonwealth of Australia, 2005). TAFE Development Centre (TDC) is one of the leading vocational educational and training workforce development initiatives. The main area of service includes both public and private sector. TDC mainly customizes learning course and it also
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Karen Head and Thomas Friedman on the topic of MOOCs and their ability to deliver writing instruction online - Essay Example Usually, participants of a MOOC can be learners who are enrolled at a particular institution or any individual with internet access. Dr. Karen Head, an assistant professor at the School of Literature, Media and Communication in Georgia Institute of Technology, and a New York Times OP-ED Columnist Thomas Friedman seem to agree and disagree on a number of aspects that concern the MOOCs. While the former presents an objective look at the subject, the latter is quite optimistic about the whole idea surrounding the MOOCs. Both authors seem to agree to the fact that MOOCs are a noble idea that can revolutionize the education sector in terms of expanded access and reduced costs. For example, in her article Ã¢â¬Å"Lessons Learned from a Freshman-Composition MOOCÃ¢â¬ , Head (2013) observes that about 21,934 students enrolled for the freshman composition course. This is quite a huge number of students receiving the course, which would have otherwise been restricted to few tens of students if it was to be offered in a traditional classroom setting. In Inside a MOOC in Progress, Head (2013) observes that with the application of tools such as Google Maps, students can be reached on every continent. Friedman refers to MOOCs as a revolution. In his article Revolution hits the Universities, Friedman (2013) notes that MOOCs have a huge potential in unlocking many more brains in solving the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s pressing problems. However, the two authors seem to present different views on the effectiveness and practi cability of MOOCs on the ground. First, Dr. Head observes that while many students enroll for the MOOCs, the retention rates are terrible. For example, out of the 21,934 students who had enrolled for the freshman composition course, about 14,771 of them were active in the course, but only 238 students managed to receive a completion certificate, (Head, 2013). Receiving the completion
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Monetary Policy (Finance) - Essay Example The Fed comes out with the monetary policy in order to ensure a certain key objectives like, delivering price stability with a low inflation level coupled with an objective to support the Government's economic objectives of growth and employment. To have a look on how the Fed monitors the price related regulations to keep a check on inflation, we can consider a small example of the regulation on house and property prices. To take any decisions related to interest rates keeping in mind the ongoing inflation rate, the Fed must be thorough with the booming property prices and must take steps to ensure that the prices are not artificial. Government intervenes through its central bank to regulate the prices of many commodities, similarly it also regulates the prices of houses like any other important commodity. Fed has the responsibility to keep a check on asset prices including the prices of houses. There can be a number of reasons why the prices of houses may shoot up, like the simple rule of demand and supply has a definite impact. (Demand and Supply for Housing). Other reasons behind a change in property prices can be Mortgages. A mortgage is the money borrowed to buy a house, as for most people buying a house is not easy. Over the years mortgage market has picked up greatly and the current scenario is totally different from the one that existed in the beginning. (The UK Housing Market - Factors Influencing the Housing Market: Mortgages) The Fed has a monetary policy and uses the same to regulate mechanism of the economy and deal with such erratic swings in the prices of property. Like when it decides to change the interest rate, the government is trying to check the overall expenditure of the economy. A change in interest rates is mostly used to contain inflation, which is the result of lavish expenditure by the country. The Fed sets a fixed interest rate at which it lends money to financial institutions and depending on this interest rate, individual banks and other financial institutions set up their own interest rates, which apply to the whole economy. This interest rate also regulated the savings in an economy, which eventually results in capital formation and reinvestment. It is note that when interest rates are high, people prefer to invest money in government deposits that are less risky in nature than the stock markets and similarly high interest rates boost up the savings. Lower interest rates make asset a nd real estate prices go up, as people start ignoring conventional saving instruments and make use of the high growth ventures like shares and houses, which pushes up their prices. Interest rate change also affects exchange rates, as an increase in the interest rate in US will yield better returns to the investors compared to their overseas ventures. This phenomenon usually makes US dollar assets attractive, which pushes up the value of the currency vis a vis other currencies, and a stronger US dollar would mean less money would be shed on imports and less quantity of exports will take place as there will a lesser demand for products made in US because of the currency being strong. It is interesting to have a look at the process of how the bank sets interest rates. The primary step in this direction starts with the estimates of the money flow that
Friday, August 23, 2019
Industrial Hygiene Issues in Construction - Research Paper Example our main issues will be tackled in this study including recognition of issues involved in industrial hygiene (IH), evaluation of the IH issues, control of industrial hygiene issues, and environmental factors of the IH issues. Workplace health hazards result in a variety of diseases to the workers including severe allergic reactions, cancers, noise-induced hearing loss, nervous system impairment among other diseases and health problems. These diseases and health problems are because of the use of cement and soil with silica and building materials that negatively affect workers welfare and health. There is noise of machinery used in the construction of buildings as the other issue affecting the hearing abilities of the workers and other senses. The other issue evident in industrial hygiene is water used in construction that causes molds in houses. The other causes of health problems and diseases recognized in industrial hygiene include bacteria, radiation, excessive heat, solvents, carbon monoxide, fiberglass, and asbestos. The actions that are mostly prevalent in the exposure of construction workers to hazardous materials include welding, cutting concrete, abrasive blasting, preparing or removing paint, a pplying insulation, and removing adhesives. The recognition of the presence of health hazards at the work place such as asbestos, cement, and soil with silica, noise, and molds is done through observation and other methods by an industrial hygienist. Evaluation in industrial hygiene entails the systematic determination of the presence of health hazards at construction sites of buildings and working environments using a set of guidelines. This is done through an assessment of the working environment to determine the amount of air contaminants, chemical, ergonomic, biological, physical hazards at a workstation and the control procedures used in ensuring the employees are well protected from these hazards. A health industrialist conducts an evaluation to assess the
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Annotated Bibliography Essay In this case, Yun, Cox Sims carried out a study the main purpose being to investigate how to develop a (TOCB) Team Organizational Citizenship Behavior. They examine whether there is a unique relationship between leadership and TOCB. They first offer a theoretical study presenting a literature review on citizenship and leadership behavior. They take citizenship as a result of leadership and probably mediated through job satisfaction. They went further to explain research method present results and finally move on to the discussion and implication part. According to earlier research carried out in this field, it revealed that leader characteristics such as consideration, participation and fairness are linked as evoking (OCB) Organizational Citizenship Behavior at personal level. In this research, they tested whether TOCB relates to other forms of a leadership typology. They also investigated the mediating responsibility of job contentment. Yun, Cox Sims concluded that leader characters influence TOCB both indirectly and directly via job satisfaction, and distinct kinds of leadersÃ¢â¬â¢ traits were developed to manipulate both TACB and TOCB. Whilst empowering and transformational leadership revealed that, TACB and TOCB have indirect impacts to job satisfaction. They also indicated that if employees are forced to do what they do not want they will feel less contented than other people will. The aversive managers will not contribute to unhappy employees. The study also indicates that transactional leadership has no impacts on job sa tisfaction, while transformational leadership has a positive result which is in line with earlier researches that showed that an augmenting competence of transformation leadership. This research is extremely helpful to the organization on how to create team organization behavior. The research, however, did not cover group level of analysis. This is a gap identified in this reserach or call for a further research. In this article, Wray-Lake Syvertsen look at how adolescents and children can make a positive input to community, and development knowledge during this period also create the arena for citizenship thought the life span. They start by defining social responsibility and explaining how it develops. They aim at understanding environmental and personal traits in adolescence and childhood that undergird the enhancement of social responsibility. They define social responsibility in relation to the development at the same time stressing on focal aspects that are communal along theoretical traditions. In development viewpoint, they aim at identifying elements of adolescence and childhood that stand for opportunities for development in social responsibility. They then move on to context, discussing the proximal scenery of young people everyday lives that motivate social responsibility. Lastly, they move on to seedbeds of social responsibility that comprise of communities, peers families and s chools. Still in this last context, they discuss techniques of developing social responsibility. Wray-Lake Syvertsen review regarding procedure through which social responsibility is earned in adolescence and childhood throughout the context propose quite promising avenues for changing development route of social responsibility. They argue that a single aspect is not significant; instead, a number of setting such community, family, school, peer environment can lead to seed of social responsibility via both indirectly through cultivating socio-emotional and cognitive competence and openly socialize social responsibility. They also conclude that adult who works together with youth can explicitly integrate a social accountability lens into relations. Assisting young individuals develop bridging community capital via forming connections with various others, for instance, is every potential way for promoting social responsibility. In addition, Wray-Lake Syvertsen think that a social responsibility is mainly controlled by some steady forces and yet has an element that is open to rev iew across the lifetime. Wray-Lake Syvertsen consideration of social responsibility in adolescence and childhood is the substantial aspect for citizenship across lifetime. If all these aspects discussed in this article are put into consideration, then, we can develop adults who are socially responsible. This can further contribute to a community rooted with moral responsibilities. Wray-Lake Syvertsen article assist in identifying factors to consider and breach the gap that they have not considered in studying social responsibility in youth and childhood in drafting the final essay. References Yun, S., Cox, J., Sims, Jr, H. P. (2007). Leadership and Teamwork: The Effects of Leadership and Job Satisfaction on Team Citizenship. International Journal of Leadership Studies (pp. 171 193). Virginia: School of Global Leadership Entrepreneurship, Regent University. Wray-Lake, L., Syvertsen, A.K (2011). The development roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence. In C.A Flanagan B.D Christens (Eds) Youth civic development: Work at cutting edge, New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 134, 11-25 Source document
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
World War II Essay For this assignment, you will complete the chart below that details the post-World War II gains and struggles of veterans, women, and African Americans. You will also use what you know to make predictions for each group. What struggles do you predict these groups will face in the decades to come? VeteransWomen African Americans What did they gain in World War II? Veterans were given a bill called the GI Bill of Rights, which guaranteed returning veterans a yearÃ¢â¬â¢s worth of unemployment compensation and medical coverage for their deeds. the GI Bill paid for veteransÃ¢â¬â¢ job training and education too. Also, the GI Bill offered low-interest loans for buying a home or starting a business. For women, after their husbands returned home from the war, many of them had children. After having children, they had houses built and started families(baby boom). Lastly, for African Americans, although African American Veterans knew they were returning home to discrimination, it still didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop many from entering the mainstream of sports and music. As the decades went on, African Americans gained the rights they deserved. What challenges did they face at the end of the war? At the end of the war, lots of veterans were out of jobs. Because of this, veterans struggled to give their families the necessities they needed. Women faced not working as a struggle because their husbands were off fighting abroad. After the war women went back to being treated as house mothers and men took over the job community. African Americans have always faced discrimination, so it was no surprise that they did even after the war. They were treated the same even after they fought for the same country that the white people did. What progress did they make in the postwar period? Post war Veterans began to work again to support their families. As they worked, they became normal Americans again. Women began working along with men and they found their places in society. They were no longer adressed as just house moms, they finally made a place for themselves in society. Lastly, African Americans began to be involved in sports . As people realized they were just like anyone else, they became more welcomed in society. What struggles might this group have in the decades to come?
Compare And Contrast Piaget And Vygotsky Education Essay Research into the way a person learns can be explained by looking at the psychological perspective. Cognitive development is concern with the ways in which childrens thinking develops in stages of life to adulthood. One of the most well known researches that can be applied to today is Piaget. This can be compared and contrast to Vygotskys theory however it can contradict against behaviourlist psychologist who say childs knowledge is due to reinforcement or punishment. This essay will compare and contrast Piaget to Vygotsky and the application it has to education, with reference to strength and weaknesses. Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who provided a highly influential theory of cognitive development. Piaget was struck by the fact that younger children gave different answers than other children, not because they were less intelligent but because they were interpreting the questions differently. Piaget saw children as scientists, and the believed they should learn by themselves. Piaget believed that the childs knowledge of the world is organised into schemas, structured patterns of knowledge and action. From birth the child has action schemas, enabling the child to know the world through acting upon it. During the 2nd year, the child begins to think about actions, and mental schemas develop. At all times, the child is motivated to keep their schemas organised, to incorporate new experiences into existing schemas, and to develop new schemas. Piaget considers we are innately programmed to adapt to our environment. Piaget used the term adaptation, to refer to the way the child learns as a result to their encounters and interactions with their environment. Adaptation takes 2 possible forms, Assimilation; this is when the child learns something that readily slots into their existing schemas. Accommodation is when the child has to change their existing schemas in order to take in a new experience. A schema allows an individual to make sense of the world as scheme are experiences, memory and information. This shows that cognitive development in a child is the process of revising knowledge to fit the ideas into this world. Another important point in Piagets theory is the existence of a third functional invariant called equilibration to keep the whole system in balance. Any changes in any part of the system will cause imbalance or disequilibrium. Equilibration keeps assimilation and accommodation in balance. Piaget developed a model of self regulating interaction which showed a link between the natu re of the physical and social environment with the childs cognitive structure. Piagets view is that cognitive development happens in stages, and at each stage the child recognises the way they think. Piaget identified 4 stages of cognitive development. Stage 1 is the sensorimotor stage from birth to 2 years. This is when the child knows the world initially through sensation and action. Piaget studied the sensorimotor phase by observing his own children. There are 2 principle features of this stage. First, those children develop object permanence, the realisation that objects exist permanently even when the child cannot see them. Second, is action schemas, by which the child knows the world through sensation and action, are supplemented and superseded by mental representations. Piaget divided the sensorimotor phase into 6 sub-stages. However, not everyone agreed with Piagets claim about object permanence. Bower (1981) showed that if an object disappeared behind a screen and then the screen was lifted, babies as young as 5 months would show surprise if the object was not there. This suggests that they did except the object to be there. However, the issue is not so much at what age these changes occur, but that they could occur and Bowers evidence merely suggests that Piaget may have underestimated what infants could do. The pre-operational stage (2-7 years) is when the children understand the world through visual appearances and non-logical assumption. From the age of about 2 years, children have mental schemas and can symbolise objects and actions in the mind as representational thought. Thought can be expressed through fantasy, play, language and drawing. Piaget divided the pre-operational Piaget divided the pre-operational stage into 2 sub stages, the preconception stage- from 2-4 years and the intuitive stage- from 4-7 years. In the pre-conceptual phase, childrens grasp of concepts is vague. They may, for example, think that if a dog is small enough it becomes a cat. Egocentrism is perhaps the most serious limitation in pre-operational childrens thinking. Typically, preoperational children said that the scene would look just the same as from their own viewpoint The next stage is the concrete operational stage (7-11 years), the child develops a degree of logic and reason, but is limited to practical problems and specific examples. Children develop mental operations Egocentrism is left behind, children become decentred, and they master principles of classification and class inclusion, and eventually full conversation of volume, number and quality. Their understanding of the world is fact-based and practical rather than theoretical. The last stage is the formal operational stage (11 years), the child achieves mature thinking and is capable of abstract theorising and scientific reasoning therefore they are fully developed by the age of 15. Formal operational adolescents are scientific in their thinking, use abstract logical reasoning and theorising, make hypotheses and test them systematically, and deduce conclusions from premises. At this stage, language plays an important role in thinking, and this means that instruction can play a more direct role than in earlier stages. There are weaknesses to this theory. Piaget underestimated the age at which children could so things- this may be because he failed to distinguish between competence (what a child is capable of doing) and performance (how a child performs on a particular task). Piagets studies tested performance and then he assumed that a child who failed simply lacked underlying cognitive structures, that he believed were needed to succeed on that task. Piaget underplayed the role of language and social factors in cognitive development. In an earlier experiment she found that children who were non-conservers differed in terms of the language they used from children classed as conservers. Non-conservers mainly used absolute rather than comparative terms and single term for different dimensions such as small to mean short, thin, or few. These findings suggest that cognitive and linguistic development is tied together, but which comes first despite many shortcomings, the strengths of Piagets approach and theory should not be overlooked. Piaget produced the first comprehensive theory of childrens cognitive development. The theory has been more extensively developed than any other. It has changed our ideas about children and has had a general influence on educational practice. Like all good theories, it has also generated research. Vygotsky development is a social process which contributes to the cognitive development through social interaction. Vygotsky (1935- 1978) through social interactions with more experienced and knowledgeable member of society parent, teacherÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦- children are able to acquire the knowledge and skills that culture deems to be important. Vygotsky believed that culture teach people how to think as well as what to think as he put a lot of emphasis on practical way of learn and remembering. He used the expression zone of proximal development (ZPD) to express the area between the level of performance a child can learn alone and of which the child can achieve with someone with knowledges help. Vygotsky believed that children cannot be accelerated beyond this zone. Therefore children learn little when left alone to struggle but neither do they learn when someone takes over their task. The term scaffolding can be used to express how a child learns according to Vygotsky. This can be d efined as support frame work for childrens learning. When the child becomes more capable and confident a gradual withdrawal of help with scaffolding is an important aspect. Roger (1990) argue children become better problem solver if they practise solving problems with their parent or more experience children. Vygotsky further believes that language is important; the use of speech influences their cognitive development. In early days, children talk to themselves when playing; this is referred as private speech. Berk (1994) demonstrate that private speech is important as it a child would use it more when doing a difficult task compare to a easier one. Piaget notice this as well and referred to this as egocentric speech, because of the inability at pre school level to think from another perspective, in comparison Vygotsky state children talk to themselves in power to help them with their level of behaviour, and how to reflect and organise their behaviour in certain situation. Like Piaget, Vygotsky believe children are active in their own learning, by exploring their environment which helped shape their own knowledge. Vygotsky theory can be applied to education as it is concern how a child is taught. Vygotsky emphasized that the most important force into a child development was the social environment unlike Piaget theory of development heavily focus on the evolutionary biology. Both psychologists took notice in children pretend playing and becoming roles of people in society. Vygotsky however noticed that pretend play places the children in a zone of proximal development in which the play in advance of their real capabilities as they take the role as doctors, parents, teachers, as pretend play is based on rules. This guide behaviour in these roles, indirect they learn norms of society and how people expect them to act.The main difference between both psychologist is the degree social and interpersonal interaction causes development. Piaget idea had a huge influence on British education. The Ploweden report was an prominent, influential and emphasised many of Piagetian principles such as development age, readiness and the developmental stages. This document was published in 1967 and principles it brought to education was that children should discover for themselves and being active learner. Teachers role if to ask question and provide material to provide the children in state of disequilbration that enable them to modify their schema. Piaget theory suggests child centre learning, as all children mature at different rates, this help create small group activity and different children learn in different way. Vygotskys theory has high implication for education; especially in the recent years as he stresses out the importance of social interaction with more experienced others as an essential, as education was a fundamental aspect of human development. Peer tutoring is a key concept as children learn little when on their own or from a teacher who so advance, but rather with children a year or two ahead of those being taught. This is seen to be scaffolding. The zone of proximal development helps as a guide to help children achieve according to their abilities. Finally as Piaget influences argues children should be active learner, Vygotsky believes children should learn through play, especially through role plays as children operate beyond their usual level of thinking. To conclude, both theories have an effect to education and different ways of learning to a certain extent, however they are both different in a significant way even though there are similarity such as a strong debate between nature and nurture. How this can be seen to an advantage as both theories put together help each other to explain cognitive education biological and environmental influences. As Vygotsky overemphasised the role of social factor, Piaget overestimated the difference between stages.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
For years, Rwanda has been a hotbed of racial tension. The majority of the Rwandan population is made up of Hutu's, with Tutsi's making up the rest of it. Ever since European colonial powers entered the country and favoured the Tutsi ethnic group over the Hutu by putting Tutsi people in all important positions in society, there has been a decisive political divide between the two groups. This favouring of the Tutsi over the Hutu, and the Hutu subjugation as an ethnic lower class resulted in the civil war and revolution of 1959, where the Hutu overthrew the Tutsi dominated government, and resulted in Rwanda gaining their independence in 1962. However, tension remained between the two ethnic groups, with a civil war raging between the Tutsi Rwandan Patriotic Front and the Hutu Government of Rwanda, right up until August 4th, 1993, with the signing of the Arusha Accords. Previous to this, all UN intervention attempts were futile in trying to bring together a government with both Tutsi and Hutu in power. On April 6th, 1994, the President of Rwanda's plane was shot down, killing him and other chief members of staff when it crashed. This was the catalyst required for the Hutu to carry out their Ã¢â¬Å"final solutionÃ¢â¬ , a plan for genocide against the ethnic Tutsi group they had been planning for years. This resulted in Hutu people taking up arms, mainly machetes, to openly attack and slaughter all Tutsi, the families of Tutsi, and even moderate Hutu people who weren't attacking the Tutsi. Over the period of around 100 days, with the death toll ranging somewhere between 800,000 to 1,100,000 the Rwandan genocide has become infamous for the high numbers of dead in such a short amount of time, and for the inadequate response of the UN an... ... involved led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Rwandan people. The UN's involvement in Rwanda is considered to be a prime example of the ineffectiveness of international law and the UN's inability to deal with conflicts. BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www.ppu.org.uk/ Used for finding historical background regarding the Genocide. http://www.rwanda-genocide.org/index.html Good research base to find access to statistics and other sources. http://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1999/rwanda/ Great website with plenty of information regarding all aspects of the issue. http://www.warriordoc.com/rwanda/ For information regarding Australia's involvement in Rwanda http://www.unitedhumanrights.com/ Information regarding United Nations involvement http://www.idrc.ca/cp/ev-106013-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html The media's response to Rwanda.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Frida Kahlo is one of the most famous female painters to originate from the twentieth century, and for good reason. Her art is filled with beauty and creativity, but FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s main source of fame comes from the emotions that these paintings invoke, rather than the actual paintings. This is because Frida put herself into every painting she did, leaving traces of her presence all throughout this world and these traces remain long after her physical departure. Frida was a very peculiar and unique individual, hence, FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of what a person is, or rather, what a self is, follows accordingly. The self is the reality that one conceives, and this self will live long after the physical body dies, continuing on as long as their memories endure. This is what Frida Kahlo defines as the self, according to her artwork. FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings are very diverse, but they all have at least one thing in common: they all allow a glimpse into FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s own reality, and some more than others. In the painting, Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird (Kahlo, p1), Frida is seemingly in a jungle or garden with a cat and a monkey on opposite shoulders with dragonflies buzzing about her head. She also has a hummingbird tied to an adorned necklace of thorns, which is making her neck bleed. The real emotion in this painting comes fully from FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s face. FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes are blank and staring straight forward. No happiness emanates from these eyes, only a cold, anguished spirit radiates. Even in this paradise-like setting she is chased by her torment. Although Frida has fabricated a beautiful piece of scenery, she still cannot enjoy the lush flora and fauna around her. This follows her definition accordingly. Although Frida wants noth... ...he will never be forgotten because she has gone to great lengths to traces of her presence everywhere she went. Frida Kahlo is inarguably the most famous painter from the twentieth century because she puts such emotion into her paintings. She put her own reality into every painting that she ever fabricated. She never painted stories or fiction, she only painted what she saw in her own mind, and what she saw in her mind was her life. Much of her life was bad, and much of her life was good, but it was all on canvas, and itÃ¢â¬â¢s all open to interpretation. If her paintings mean something specific to a specific person, Frida would say that is all that matters. FridaÃ¢â¬â¢s paintings had very intense meanings for her, but she would never want to take a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own interpretation away from him or her. Frida would say that the only reality anyone has is of their own make.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
A Comparison of Imprisonment in Yellow Wallpaper, Jane Eyre and Slave Girl :: compare and contrast essay examples
Imprisonment in Yellow Wallpaper, Jane Eyre and Slave Girl Ã Ã When I think of prisons, the first thing that comes into my mind is of course locking someone up against their will or as a punishment, because someone else has decided that this is for the best or simply wants to get someone out of the way. Bertha Mason in Jane Eyre is locked up in the attic and the woman in The Yellow Wall-paper is confined to a summer home by her husband. For both these women, the locking up serves as yet another prison: they are both already prisoners in their own bodies by their mental states. In The Yellow Wall-paper, the main character is placed in a summer home to recover from a nervous condition. Her husband John, a doctor, believes that in order to get well, she has to take a rest cure and refrain from all kinds of physical or mental exertion, and he therefore more or less locks her up in one of the larger rooms of the house where she has nothing to do but stare at the wallpaper and keep a diary. She believes to see a woman trapped behind the wallp aper and strips it off in order to set her free - this I see as how she sees herself in her confinement. Her psychological state as well as the confinement to the room, along with the gender roles and expectations of that time, all work together to make her a prisoner kept making her own decisions. The husband is the provider, the one who knows best and the one who makes the decisions and she has no way of voicing her own. She finally "escapes" her controlling husband and the room by finally descending into insanity. "'I've got out at last', said I, 'in spite of you and Jane! And I've pulled off most of the paper, so you can't put me back!'" (Gilman, p1669). Bertha Mason in Jane Eyre has, to use a slightly old-fashioned term, gone mad to such an extent that she is dangerous to both herself and to others. To get her out of the way, Mr Rochester has her locked up and he pretends that she has never existed at all. By treating her like an animal (putting her in a large cage), he creates a real (physical) prison with its locks and bars, and I believe that only makes matters worse, since there certainly was no way that she would ever recover up there.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The life of everyday 2012 Americans would be massively effected if they had no cellular phones. Since cellular phones were considered advanced back then they could carry Ã¢â¬Å"APSÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the internetÃ¢â¬ , with these two things humans could most likely do almost everything from their phone, except eat and drink. Most everyone in 2012 has a phone for communication purposes, since people travel far away and do not stay close to the home. Although a cellular phone was a status symbol, It was also seed to take Ã¢â¬Å"picturesÃ¢â¬ , and to decorate, in 2012 they had things called Ã¢â¬Å"phone casesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"phone charmsÃ¢â¬ .This Just fed into the obsession with the use for cellular phones and other technologies. Cellular Phones challenge the Christian faith because they are such a temptation. Since Americans got all the worlds information to their phones, they kept their cellular phones close. They left these devices on loud ringers too, this way they were noti fied when a text came up, or something In their social media circle. But 2012 Christians should be more focused on serving the Lord's will, rather than satisfying their need to stay Ã¢â¬Å"updatedÃ¢â¬ .In the more ancient Roman times, the Christian were faced with the dawning task of trying to Ã¢â¬Å"fit inÃ¢â¬ with the regular society, so they had to pretend to worship false idols. But the Ancient Roman Christians rose above that, they knew that with the help of God that life would learn to accept Christianity as a real religion. Roman Christian would just have to remain faithful to God and know that it is in his will that they learn o resist temptations and to stay faithful even through the persecution. My second artifact that I uncovered was a Ã¢â¬Å"Cool Story BRB. Tell it again. Ã¢â¬ Sweatshirt.This sweatshirt represents clothing that Americans wore in 2012, this would also be considered Ideas and Values. These types of sweatshirts were used to gain attention, both posi tive and negative, with a catchy slogan. This effects the dally lives of Americans living In 2012 because sweatshirts, were used for warmth. But they could serve another purpose too, living in 2012 the world was all about fashion, so any people wore sweatshirts with catchy slogans because it was Ã¢â¬Å"hipÃ¢â¬ The main reason it was a challenge to the lives of Christians living in 2012 was because the slogan Ã¢â¬Å"Cool Story BRB.Tell it Again. Ã¢â¬ is supposed to make the person telling the long and uninteresting thing feel like their words were not important. So their words feel less important with such a rude phrase. Ancient Roman Christians must have felt the same way because since they lived in a time were false idols were constantly being worshiped, believing in a Heavenly Father made them unimportant. Ancient Romans treated the Christian word like we do now with that catchy slogan; they denounce all meaning in our messages, our prophets, and our bible verses.The Christi ans rose above all the hate and mean glares that were given to them in Ancient Roman times, so it should be easier for Christians in 2012 to be able to turn their heads away from the fallen decedents of Jesus Christ. It is only God's will if people want to reject our messages, and our teachings. We will always as Christians stay faithful no matter what, and continue to speak of God's Grace. The third and final artifact that I discovered is a women fragrance, names Ã¢â¬Å"RubbleÃ¢â¬ by Ranch.This artifact goes under social life, and ideas and values. In 2012, women were obsessed with smelling good, it was not uncommon for one women to have more than 3 perfumes in her bathroom or bedroom. This was all because of the idea that women must smell good, to be attractive; of course there were other things women had to suffer through to be considered attractive. But none the less, women were objectified to be a perfect person. This posed a challenge to Christians and their faith because; Christian women would not be focused on achieving preferences.The only one who can be perfect is God, who made us, and teaches us daily. Although it was tempting for Christian women to object themselves to the culture around them, they knew that in the end it wouldn't be the preferences that got them to heaven, and that they wouldn't be Judge on their appearance. In the end Christian women knew that they must stay faithful to God, and know that he is the only one who Judges us in the end. In Ancient Roman times, women-not Just Christian- were faced with the same reality.The cultures around them made everyone think that women have to be a certain way to be beautiful, this has been etched out through all of time since Adam and Eve, and the dinosaurs. Christian women of faith should not be discouraged by the perfect image formed by society and pop culture. They should only strengthen their faith, becoming closer with God. God doesn't see you as you, he sees you as the person he created , and a loving human being. God is the only one who Judges you when you leave this world, so why should you care who Judges you in this world? Artifacts They include tools, dwellings, artifacts, war machinery and music instruments among others. Material culture advanced at different speeds in different communities depending major on the needs of the community at that particular time and technological ability. Building structures such as homes and roads, which are products of architecture, provide the major contribution to material culture. This brings out clearly the importance of architecture in the development of material culture, and the same way, material culture is so important in architecture and other fields as discussed below.For architects, material culture can be a great source of inspiration in designing of buildings. Many architectural designs source their inspiration from the material culture of a society. Physical cultural elements such as the African hut, the gourd, the African pot and the African mat have inspired African architecture. A good number of buildings in Africa have their inspiration from very old buildings in Asia and Europe, mostly religious places of worship such as the churches and mosques, almost all mosques have a similar design that traces its origin way back in the Asian countries where McHugh style of architecture was plopped.Such are forms of material culture as they played a central role in defining the religion of the people during that time. Since material culture is tangible, and in most cases very durable, it provides a concrete support and evidence in proving historical facts. By collecting and studying material culture, historians are able to validate and prove their claims. In the study of the origin of man, Charles Darwin could have not in any way convinced a single person that man evolved from the same evolutionary path as primates.But through the evidence gathered from the mains of the stone tools and artifacts at the areas belied to have been the dwellings of the early man, it was much easier for him to prove his point that man evolved from apes. Material culture enables us to gauge the level of development of a people. In the modern world, there exists a different level of gauging the development of societies I. E. The developed countries such as USA china, Japan and Britain, the developing countries such as Brazil Kenya and south Africa and also the third world countries.What leads to such difference in classification is mainly the kind of materials these societies use and their technological advancement. We are able to measure how advanced the ancient societies were through the study of their material culture, for example the early civilizations such as Mesopotamia and Egypt, through studying the remains of their agricultural tools, we are able to comfortably conclude that such civilizations had sophisticated technology as per that time. In the more recent societies of Rome and Jerusalem, by getting knowledge of their architecture, we find how much they were technologically advanced.This is important in that it gives us onscreen evidence to use in gauging the level of development of a people. Material culture is a source of heritage and pride of a people. The tangible evidence of the technological advancement is a source of pride as a heritage of a people, historic buildings and artifacts owned by a society provides them with something to show off their history and advancement in various fields of Science and Mathematics. For example the Fort Jesus building in Lama, the Geed ruins, these are sources of pride for Kenya as they are historical places that define the history of Kenya.Famous old buildings such as the Dome of the Rock located on the Temple Mount in the old City of Jerusalem, SST. Pewter's Basilica in Rome, Italy, Acropolis of Athens, the Pantheon in Rome, the Parthenon in Athens, Decent Mosque in Mali, the Great Pyramids of Egypt and Haggis Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey are great heritages of the communities that associate with them and the countries in which they have been in existence for centuries. They are a source of pride and give a visual impression of the history of the people in those places. References; www. Du. Com
Friday, August 16, 2019
Dear Ms. Jones: In order to obtain the forecast for the fifth year we had to gather and analyze the data of the four previous years in your company. The trend (data behaving with the same frequency over the years) that was found was the following: The beginning months of the year are the ones with higher sales. As the months go by, sales continue decreasing until December, where sales come back up again. Now, let me explain how we were able to arrive to this conclusion. First, we calculated the average demand by adding up all the sales of all four years and dividing them by the number of months (48). Then, we came up with the ratio by dividing the sales of each period by the average demand. The seasonal index is then obtained by getting the average of the same month ratios of all four years. For example, the average of all the 4 January ratios. The seasonal index is an average that can be used to compare an actual observation relative to what it would be if we there were no seasonal variation. We arrive to the seasonal forecast by dividing the sales by the seasonal index. Then we get the trend line by adding the intercept plus the x-variable and multiplying that by each period. The trend forecast is what will show you the regular trend of the years. That is obtained by multiplying the trend line times the seasonal index. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a snapshot of the trend of the what the fifth year would look like: And here is another graph showing the trend of the four previous years: As you can tell, the sales behavior repeats itself throughout the years. This trend seems to be very consistent. However, I must warn you that the p-value (percentage defective) in the summary output is significantly higher than . 06, (it is a. 404056) and this means this forecast is not very reliable. I also calculated the percentage errors; the absolute percentage error (MAPE) is 3. 85%. This error was calculated by dividing the absolute error (which we got by subtracting the trend forecast from the sales and using the absolute value of that), by the sales, and then getting the percentage of all the absolute percentage errors. I hope this helps you understand the trend of your sales throughout a year. The most important thing for you to identify is the months where you are having higher sales the possible reasons why those sales decrease as the years comes to an end.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
To marginalize means to relegate to a lower or outer edge, of specific groups of people. Marginalized people in society are people who are considered as outcasts in the society, they are referred to as those of a lower class. Those who are marginalized are outside the dominant culture of a group. The group could be a professional group, a social group, or a whole society. An individual may be marginalized because the dominant culture is unable to live with a particular group or individual. In the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37), it is obvious that prioritizing the powerless is a form of love for neighbors. LukeÃ¢â¬â¢s gospel entails a writing style that is aimed at giving hope to the non Jews or Gentiles and those disregarded in society to depict to them that Jesus also came to save them, he aims to break the strongholds of disregard for the marginalized in society. At the time, the Jews marginalized the poor, women, orphans and the diseased. In Luke 7:11-17, we clearly see Jesus showing love and compassion to a widow (Nain), depicting utmost concern and love for women, as the men at the time had a daily prayer Ã¢â¬Å"thanking God that they were not born womenÃ¢â¬ . LukeÃ¢â¬â¢s gospel brings out Jesus as a voice for the marginalized by uplifting and showing their importance to his Kingdom, like the account of Mary with Angel Gabriel, as well as condemning the actions of the rich. In our communities today, we see the same marginalization being depicted among various disadvantaged groups some of which may include The Poor are greatly marginalized due to their inability to afford what others can. Uganda has a high poverty rate where 90% of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s poor live in Rural areas, Many children are left roaming the city streets due to lack of funds for their education, many Karamajong women travel to become beggarsÃ¢â¬â¢ on the Kampala streets which also act as their homesteads in the cold biting nights, many girls also resort to prostitution to get a living and are seen as grave sinners and because of these adverse factors, the poor are disregarded by many people and ignored due to their uncontrollable circumstance Women are also greatly marginalized despite their higher percentage of 51% in the Ugandan community. Women are seen as a weaker or less important sex to men. This is clearly depicted in the working sector, where very few women are able to take up white collar employment opportunities which are mainly taken up by men. This stretches back to the educational opportunity given to women whereby many girls are taken away from school early, and other donÃ¢â¬â¢t even get to start school which is mostly evident in the rural areas since women are seen as tools for house work, producing children and taking of gardens, widowed women are also taken advantage of when their husbands pass on and relatives take the remaining property. These in turn limits their chances for a bright future and therefore, even in the Bible in Luke 7:37-43, we see the disregard for women by Simon, one of JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ disciples which has stretched till this present. The sick have also been marginalized for example, people living with HIV, cancer, diabetes and other diseases are segregated from society since people donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to associate with them to risk infection and therefore, some people are chased from schools, work places since they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to associate with them. Sick people are seen as less special and are kept out of conversations, meetings and other social gatherings yet Jesus regards everyone as special before his sight (Luke 12:6-8) Some children are dumped in bins and latrines due to the disabilities which is extremely gruesome. Regardless of this marginalization, God still creates a solution, a way out for his people to get refuge. The very same compassion that Jesus had for the poor and disadvantaged has been placed in the hearts of my people in community who come up with solutions and means of helping the marginalized Many Organizations have been put in place to help those in need with the basic health care needs like The World Food Programme (W.F.O), Red Cross, Relief Aid and many others and this has helped to establish families that have gone through crisis like the Bududa landslides, the famine outbreaks in Karamoja and this shows that regardless of the situations the poor go through, God still makes a way for them. The government has started programmes to help facilitate the poor for example the NAADS programme as well as the Youth Loan schemes and this has helped to build up innovativeness and revenue for the poor since they are able to get loans from which they can start up business activities and be able to sustain themselves Charity Organization like Samaritan Purse, Smile Like a Child, Invisible Children, Mission Moving Mountains and many others in different communities have been able to provide homes for street children as well food and an education and therefore, the number of street children has greatly reduced and the number of those who lack is gradually reducing. The government has introduced Universal Education which is cheap and affordable for the poor as well which has enabled girls and women to access educational facilities and not stay idle at home, this is in line with the law for all children to go to school which is stipulated as a law in the Uganda Constitution. Sponsorships and Incentives for women have been put in place to enable women to get a fair chance at competing with the vast number men in the work field for example the 1.5 point grade added to girls at University admission as well as the Sponsorships from organizations like Compassion International that can facilitate ones education fees from Primary to University level and this has helped increase the number of female graduates and employees. Zacchaeus in the Bible also gave to the poor half of what he owed (Luke 19:7-9) and we should follow this example Sensitization programmes about the HIV/AIDS, Cancer diseases has been put in place whereby companies like T.A.S.O, and other health organizations have been able to inform people about the stigma issues related with these diseases and provide information about them that enables people to know the truth and stop marginalization for example, the Health awareness week in Uganda Christian University by Allan Galpin Health Center Extension of health services with trained health care workers and health units to provide outreach health facilities to under-served communities. Establishment of authorized clinics and pharmacies recognized by the ministry of health helps to provide good health facilities at a lower cost, for example the free Health Care weeks by various Companies and Hospitals like Mulago Hospital, free ARVÃ¢â¬â¢s to HIV/AIDS patients by companies like Midmay International and TASO. Therefore, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important for us to promote a change in our community and care for those in need, knowing that we are all special before God and w have to treat each other the way Jesus cared for the marginalized when He spent his 33 years on earth as a man like we are. Taking the story of Lazarus, the poor man and the Rich man (Luke 16:19-26), that if we are rich, letÃ¢â¬â¢s give to those who are less fortunate and not segregate them instead. REFERENCE Good News Bible, The Gideons International Understanding the New Testament, 2011 edition Baulcombe, S. Hostick, T. New, A. Pugh, H. (1998) Ã¢â¬ËAsking the Experts: A Guide to Involving People in Shaping Health and Social Care ServicesÃ¢â¬â¢. The Community Care Needs Assessment Project (CCNAP) (available to download from www.ccnap.org.uk) Baxter, L. Thorne, L. Mitchell, A. (2001) Ã¢â¬ËSmall Voices, Big Noises: Lay involvement in health research: lessons from other fieldsÃ¢â¬â¢ Folk.us, Consumers in NHS Research, Exeter, Washington Singer Press http://www.academicjournals.org www.christianaid.org.uk www.redeemercitytocity.com
10. Why Didn't I Just Walk Away? Oh Right, Because I'm An Idiot. I felt like Ã¢â¬â like I don't know what. Like this wasn't real. Like I was in some Goth version of a bad sitcom. Instead of being the AAdweeb about to ask the head cheerleader to the prom, I was the finished-second-place werewolf about to ask the vampire's wife to shack up and procreate. Nice. No, I wouldn't do it. It was twisted and wrong. I was going to forget all about what he'd said. But I would talk to her. I'd try to make her listen to me. And she wouldn't. Just like always. Edward didn't answer or comment on my thoughts as he led the way back to the house. I wondered about the place that he'd chosen to stop. Was it far enough from the house that the others couldn't hear his whispers? Was that the point? Maybe. When we walked through the door, the other Cullens' eyes were suspicious and confused. No one looked disgusted or outraged. So they must not have heard either favor Edward had asked me for. I hesitated in the open doorway, not sure what to do now. It was better right there, with a little bit of breathable air blowing in from outside. Edward walked into the middle of the huddle, shoulders stiff. Bella watched him anxiously, and then her eyes flickered to me for a second. Then she was watching him again. Her face turned a grayish pale, and I could see what he meant about the stress making her feel worse. Ã¢â¬Å"We're going tolet Jacob and Bella speak privately,Ã¢â¬ Edward said. There was no inflection at all in his voice. Robotic. Ã¢â¬Å"Over my pile of ashes,Ã¢â¬ Rosalie hissed at him. She was still hovering by Bella's head, one of her cold hands placed possessively on Bella's sallow cheek. Edward didn't look at her. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella,Ã¢â¬ he said in that same empty tone. Ã¢â¬Å"Jacob wants to talk to you. Are you afraid to be alone with him?Ã¢â¬ Bella looked at me, confused. Then she looked at Rosalie. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose, it's fine. Jake's not going to hurt us. Go with Edward.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It might be a trick,Ã¢â¬ the blonde warned. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't see how,Ã¢â¬ Bella said. Ã¢â¬Å"Carlisle and I will always be in your sight, Rosalie,Ã¢â¬ Edward said. The emotionless voice was cracking, showing the anger through it. Ã¢â¬Å"We're the ones she's afraid of.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ Bella whispered. Her eyes were glistening, her lashes wet. Ã¢â¬Å"No, Edward. I'm not___Ã¢â¬ He shook his head, smiling a little. The smile was painful to look at. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't mean it that way, Bella. I'm fine. Don't worry about me.Ã¢â¬ Sickening. He was right Ã¢â¬â she was beating herself up about hurting his feelings. The girl was a classic martyr. She'd totally been born in the wrong century. She should have lived back when she could have gotten herself fed to some lions for a good cause. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone,Ã¢â¬ Edward said, his hand stiffly motioning toward the door. Ã¢â¬Å"Please.Ã¢â¬ The composure he was trying to keep up for Bella was shaky. I could see how close he was to that burning man he'd been outside. The others saw it, too. Silently, they moved out the door while I shifted out of the way. They moved fast; my heart beat twice, and the room was cleared except for Rosalie, hesitating in the middle of the floor, and Edward, still waiting by the door. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose,Ã¢â¬ Bella said quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"I want you to go.Ã¢â¬ The blonde glared at Edward and then gestured for him to go first. He disappeared out the door. She gave me a long warning glower, and then she disappeared, too. Once we were alone, I crossed the room and sat on the floor next to Bella. I took both her cold hands in mine, rubbing them carefully. Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks, Jake. That feels good.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not going to lie, Bells. You're hideous.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know,Ã¢â¬ she sighed. Tm scary-looking.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thing-from-the-swamp scary,Ã¢â¬ I agreed. She laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"It's so good having you here. It feels nice to smile. I don't know how much more drama I can stand.Ã¢â¬ I rolled my eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, okay,Ã¢â¬ she agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"I bring it on myself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah, you do. What're you thinking, Bells? Seriously!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Did he ask you to yell at me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sort of. Though I can't figure why he thinks you'd listen to me. You never have before.Ã¢â¬ She sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"I told you Ã¢â¬â ,Ã¢â¬ I started to say. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you know that 7 told you so' has a brother, Jacob?Ã¢â¬ she asked, cutting me off. Ã¢â¬Å"His name is Ã¢â¬ËShut the hell up.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good one.Ã¢â¬ She grinned at me. Her skin stretched tight over the bones. Ã¢â¬Å"I can't take credit Ã¢â¬â i got it off a rerun of The SimpsonsÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Missed that one.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It was funny.Ã¢â¬ We didn't talk for a minute. Her hands were starting to warm up a little. Ã¢â¬Å"Did he really ask you to talk to me?Ã¢â¬ I nodded. Ã¢â¬Å"To talk some sense into you. There's a battle that's lost before it starts.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So why did you agree?Ã¢â¬ I didn't answer. I wasn't sure I knew. I did know this Ã¢â¬â every second I spent with her was only going to add to the pain I would have to suffer later. Like a junkie with a limited supply, the day of reckoning was coming for me. The more hits I took now, the harder it would be when my supply ran out. Ã¢â¬Å"It'll work out, you know,Ã¢â¬ she said after a quiet minute. Ã¢â¬Å"I believe that.Ã¢â¬ That made me see red again. Ã¢â¬Å"Is dementia one of your symptoms?Ã¢â¬ I snapped. She laughed, though my anger was so real that my hands were shaking around hers. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe,Ã¢â¬ she said. Tm not saying things will work out easily, Jake. But how could I have lived through all that I've lived through and not believe in magic by this point?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Magic?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Especially for you,Ã¢â¬ she said. She was smiling. She pulled one of her hands away from mine and pressed it against my cheek. Warmer than before, but it felt cool against my skin, like most things did. Ã¢â¬Å"More than anyone else, you've got some magic waiting to make things right for you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What are you babbling about?Ã¢â¬ Still smiling. Ã¢â¬Å"Edward told me once what it was like Ã¢â¬â your imprinting thing. He said it was like A Midsummer Night's Dream, like magic. You'll find who you're really looking for, Jacob, and maybe then all of this will make sense.Ã¢â¬ If she hadn't looked so fragile I would've been screaming. As it was, I did growl at her. Ã¢â¬Å"If you think that imprinting could ever make sense of this insanity Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ I struggled for words. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you really think that just because I might someday imprint on some stranger it would make this right?Ã¢â¬ I jabbed a finger toward her swollen body. Ã¢â¬Å"Tell me what the point was then, Bella! What was the point of me loving you? What was the point of you loving him? When you dieÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â the words were a snarl Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"how is that ever right again? What's the point to all the pain? Mine, yours, his! You'll kill him, too, not that I care about that.Ã¢â¬ She flinched, but I kept going. Ã¢â¬Å"So what was the point of your twisted love story, in the end? If there is any sense, please show me, Bella, because I don't see it.Ã¢â¬ She sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know yet, Jake. But I justÃ¢â¬ ¦ feelÃ¢â¬ ¦ that this is all going somewhere good, hard to see as it is now. I guess you could call it faith.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You're dying for nothing, Bella! Nothing!Ã¢â¬ Her hand dropped from my face to her bloated stomach, caressed it. She didn't have to say the words for me to know what she was thinking. She was dying for it. I'm not going to die,Ã¢â¬ she said through her teeth, and I could tell she was repeating things she'd said before. Ã¢â¬Å"I will keep my heart beating. I'm strong enough for that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That's a load of crap, Bella. You've been trying to keep up with the supernatural for too long. No normal person can do it. You're not strong enough.Ã¢â¬ I took her face in my hand. I didn't have to remind myself to be gentle. Everything about her screamed breakable. Ã¢â¬Å"I can do this. I can do this,Ã¢â¬ she muttered, sounding a lot like that kids' book about the little engine that could. Ã¢â¬Å"Doesn't look like it to me. So what's your plan? I hope you have one.Ã¢â¬ She nodded, not meeting my eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Did you know Esme jumped off a cliff? When she was human, I mean.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"So she was close enough to dead that they didn't even bother taking her to the emergency room Ã¢â¬â they took her right around to the morgue. Her heart was still beating, though, when Carlisle found her___Ã¢â¬ That's what she'd meant before, about keeping her heart beating. Ã¢â¬Å"You're not planning on surviving this human,Ã¢â¬ I stated dully. Ã¢â¬Å"No. I'm not stupid.Ã¢â¬ She met my stare then. Ã¢â¬Å"I guess you probably have your own opinion on that point, though.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Emergency vampirization,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled. Ã¢â¬Å"It worked for Esme. And Emmett, and Rosalie, and even Edward. None of them were in such great shape. Carlisle only changed them because it was that or death. He doesn't end lives, he saves them.Ã¢â¬ I felt a sudden twinge of guilt about the good vampire doctor, like before. I shoved the thought away and started in on the begging. Ã¢â¬Å"Listen to me, Bells. Don't do it that way.Ã¢â¬ Like before, when the call from Charlie had come, I could see how much difference it really made to me. I realized I needed her to stay alive, in some form. In any form. I took a deep breath. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't wait until it's too late, Bella. Not that way. Live. Okay? Just live. Don't do this to me. Don't do it to him.Ã¢â¬ My voice got harder, louder. Ã¢â¬Å"You know what he's going to do when you die. You've seen it before. You want him to go back to those Italian killers?Ã¢â¬ She cringed into the sofa. I left out the part about how that wouldn't be necessary this time. Struggling to make my voice softer, I asked, Ã¢â¬Å"Remember when I got mangled up by those newborns? What did you tell me?Ã¢â¬ I waited, but she wouldn't answer. She pressed her lips together. Ã¢â¬Å"You told me to be good and listen to Carlisle,Ã¢â¬ I reminded her. Ã¢â¬Å"And what did I do? I listened to the vampire. For you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You listened because it was the right thing to do.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay Ã¢â¬â pick either reason.Ã¢â¬ She took a deep breath. Ã¢â¬Å"It's not the right thing now.Ã¢â¬ Her gaze touched her big round stomach and she whispered under her breath, Ã¢â¬Å"I won't kill him.Ã¢â¬ My hands shook again. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, I hadn't heard the great news. A bouncing baby boy, huh? Shoulda brought some blueballoons.Ã¢â¬ Her face turned pink. The color was so beautiful Ã¢â¬â it twisted in my stomach like a knife. A serrated knife, rusty and ragged. I was going to lose this. Again. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know he's a boy,Ã¢â¬ she admitted, a little sheepish. Ã¢â¬Å"The ultrasound wouldn't work. The membrane around the baby is too hard Ã¢â¬â like their skin. So he's a little mystery. But I always see a boy in my head.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's not some pretty baby in there, Bella.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We'll see,Ã¢â¬ she said. Almost smug. Ã¢â¬Å"You won't,Ã¢â¬ I snarled. Ã¢â¬Å"You're very pessimistic, Jacob. There is definitely a chance that I might walk away from this.Ã¢â¬ I couldn't answer. I looked down and breathed deep and slow, trying to get a grip on my fury. Ã¢â¬Å"Jake,Ã¢â¬ she said, and she patted my hair, stroked my cheek. Ã¢â¬Å"It's going to be okay. Shh. it's okay.Ã¢â¬ I didn't look up. Ã¢â¬Å"No. It will not be okay.Ã¢â¬ She wiped something wet from my cheek. Ã¢â¬Å"Shh.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What's the deal, Bella?Ã¢â¬ I stared at the pale carpet. My bare feet were dirty, leaving smudges. Good. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought the whole point was that you wanted your vampire more than anything. And now you're just giving him up? That doesn't make any sense. Since when are you desperate to be a mom? If you wanted that so much, why did you marry a vampire?Ã¢â¬ I was dangerously close to that offer he wanted me to make. I could see the words taking me that way, but I couldn't change their direction. She sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"It's not like that. I didn't really care about having a baby. I didn't even think about it. It's not just having a baby. It'sÃ¢â¬ ¦ wellÃ¢â¬ ¦ this baby.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's a killer, Bella. Look at yourself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's not. It's me. I'm just weak and human. But I can tough this out, Jake, I can Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Aw, come on! Shut up, Bella. You can spout this crap to your bloodsucker, but you're not fooling me. You know you're not going to make it.Ã¢â¬ She glared at me. Ã¢â¬Å"I do not know that. I'm worried about it, sure.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Worriedabout it,Ã¢â¬ I repeated through my teeth. She gasped then and clutched at her stomach. My fury vanished like a light switch being turned off. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm fine,Ã¢â¬ she panted. It's nothing.Ã¢â¬ But I didn't hear; her hands had pulled her sweatshirt to the side, and I stared, horrified, at the skin it exposed. Her stomach looked like it was stained with big splotches of purple-black ink. She saw my stare, and she yanked the fabric back in place. Ã¢â¬Å"He's strong, that's all,Ã¢â¬ she said defensively. The ink spots were bruises. I almost gagged, and I understood what he'd said, about watching it hurt her. Suddenly, I felt a little crazy myself. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella,Ã¢â¬ I said. She heard the change in my voice. She looked up, still breathing heavy, her eyes confused. Ã¢â¬Å"Bella, don't do this:' Ã¢â¬Å"Jake Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Listen to me. Don't get your back up yet. Okay? Just listen. What ifÃ¢â¬ ¦ ?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What if what?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What if this wasn't a one-shot deal? What if it wasn't all or nothing? What if you just listened to Carlisle like a good girl, and kept yourself alive?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I won't Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not done yet. So you stay alive. Then you can start over. This didn't work out. Try again.Ã¢â¬ She frowned. She raised one hand and touched the place where my eyebrows were mashing together. Her fingers smoothed my forehead for a moment while she tried to make sense of it. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't understandÃ¢â¬ ¦. What do you mean, try again? You can't think Edward would let meÃ¢â¬ ¦ ? And what difference would it make? I'm sure any baby Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ I snapped. Ã¢â¬Å"Any kid of his would be the same.Ã¢â¬ Her tired face just got more confused. Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ But I couldn't say any more. There was no point. I would never be able to save her from herself. I'd never been able to do that. Then she blinked, and I could see she got it. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh. Ugh. Please, Jacob. You think I should kill my baby and replace it with some generic substitute? Artificial insemination?Ã¢â¬ She was mad now. Ã¢â¬Å"Why would I want to have some stranger's baby? I suppose it just doesn't make a difference? Any baby will do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't mean that,Ã¢â¬ I muttered. Ã¢â¬Å"Not a stranger.Ã¢â¬ She leaned forward. Ã¢â¬Å"Then what are you saying?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing. I'm saying nothing. Same as ever.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Where did that come from?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Forget it, Bella.Ã¢â¬ She frowned, suspicious. Ã¢â¬Å"Did he tell you to say that?Ã¢â¬ I hesitated, surprised that she'd made that leap so quick. Ã¢â¬Å"No.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He did, didn't he?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, really. He didn't say anything about artificial whatever.Ã¢â¬ Her face softened then, and she sank back against the pillows, looking exhausted. She stared off to the side when she spoke, not talking to me at all. Ã¢â¬Å"He would do anything forme. And I'm hurting him so muchÃ¢â¬ ¦. But what is he thinking? That I would trade thisÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â her hand traced across her belly Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"for some stranger's Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She mumbled the last part, and then her voice trailed off. Her eyes were wet. Ã¢â¬Å"You don't have to hurt him,Ã¢â¬ I whispered. It burned like poison in my mouth to beg for him, but I knew this angle was probably my best bet for keeping her alive. Still a thousand-to-one odds. Ã¢â¬Å"You could make him happy again, Bella. And I really think he's losing it. Honestly, I do.Ã¢â¬ She didn't seem to be listening; her hand made small circles on her battered stomach while she chewed on her lip. It was quiet for a long time. I wondered if the Cullens were very far away. Were they listening to my pathetic attempts to reason with her? Ã¢â¬Å"Not a stranger?Ã¢â¬ she murmured to herself. I flinched. Ã¢â¬Å"What exactly did Edward say to you?Ã¢â¬ she asked in a low voice. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing. He just thought you might listen to me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not that. About trying again.Ã¢â¬ Her eyes locked on mine, and I could see that I'd already given too much away. Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing.Ã¢â¬ Her mouth fell open a little. Ã¢â¬Å"Wow.Ã¢â¬ It was silent for a few heartbeats. I looked down at my feet again, unable to meet her stare. Ã¢â¬Å"He really would do anything, wouldn't he?Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"I told you he was going crazy. Literally, Bells.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm surprised you didn't tell on him right away. Get him in trouble.Ã¢â¬ When I looked up, she was grinning. Ã¢â¬Å"Thought about it.Ã¢â¬ I tried to grin back, but I could feel the smile mangle on my face. She knew what I was offering, and she wasn't going to think twice about it. I'd known that she wouldn't. But it still stung. Ã¢â¬Å"There isn't much you wouldn't do for me, either, is there?Ã¢â¬ she whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"I really don't know why you bother. I don't deserve either of you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It makes no difference, though, does it?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not this time.Ã¢â¬ She sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"I wish I could explain it to you right so that you would understand. I can't hurthimÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â she pointed to her stomach Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"any more than I could pick up a gun and shoot you. I love him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why do you always have to love the wrong things, Bella?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't think I do.Ã¢â¬ I cleared the lump out of my throat so that I could make my voice hard like I wanted it. Ã¢â¬ËTrust me.Ã¢â¬ I started to get to my feet. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are you going?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not doing any good here.Ã¢â¬ She held out her thin hand, pleading. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't go.Ã¢â¬ I could feel the addiction sucking at me, trying to keep me near her. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't belong here. I've got to get back.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why did you come today?Ã¢â¬ she asked, still reaching limply. Ã¢â¬Å"Just to see if you were really alive. I didn't believe you were sick like Charlie said.Ã¢â¬ I couldn't tell from her face whether she bought that or not. Ã¢â¬Å"Will you come back again? Before Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not going to hang around and watch you die,Bella.Ã¢â¬ She flinched. Ã¢â¬Å"You're right, you're right. You should go.Ã¢â¬ I headed for the door. Ã¢â¬Å"Bye,Ã¢â¬ she whispered behind me. Ã¢â¬Å"Love you, Jake.Ã¢â¬ I almost went back. I almost turned around and fell down on my knees and started begging again. But I knew that I had to quitBella, quit her cold turkey, before she killed me, like she was going to kill him. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure, sure,Ã¢â¬ I mumbled on my way out. I didn't see any of the vampires. I ignored my bike, standing all alone in the middle of the meadow. It wasn't fast enough for me now. My dad would be freaked out Ã¢â¬â Sam, too. What would the pack make of the fact that they hadn't heard me phase? Would they think the Cullens got me before I'd had the chance? I stripped down, not caring who might be watching, and started running. I blurred into wolf mid-stride. They were waiting. Of course they were. Jacob, Jake,eight voices chorused in relief. Come homenow, the Alpha voice ordered. Sam was furious. I felt Paul fade out, and i knew Billy and Rachel were waiting to hear what had happened to me. Paul was too anxious to give them the good news that I wasn't vampire chow to listen to the whole story. I didn't have to tell the pack I was on my way Ã¢â¬â they could see the forest blurring past me as I sprinted for home. I didn't have to tell them that I was half-past crazy, either. The sickness in my head was obvious. They saw all the horror Ã¢â¬â Bella's mottled stomach; her raspy voice; he's strong, that's all: the burning man in Edward's face: watching her sicken and waste awayÃ¢â¬ ¦ seeing it hurting her, Rosalie crouched over Bella's limp body: Bella's life means nothing to her Ã¢â¬â and for once, no one had anything to say. Their shock was just a silent shout in my head. Wordless. I was halfway home before anyone recovered. Then they all started running to meet me. It was almost dark Ã¢â¬â the clouds covered the sunset completely. I risked darting across the freeway and made it without being seen. We met up about ten miles out of La Push, in a clearing left by the loggers. It was out of the way, wedged between two spurs of the mountain, where no one would see us. Paul found them when I did, so the pack was complete. The babble in my head was total chaos. Everyone shouting at once. Sam's hackles were sticking straight up, and he was growling in an unbroken stream as he paced back and forth around the top of the ring. Paul and Jared moved like shadows behind him, their ears flat against the sides of their head. The whole circle was agitated, on their feet and snarling in low bursts. At first their anger was undefined, and I thought I was in for it. I was too messed up to care about that. They could do whatever they wanted to me for circumventing orders. And then the unfocused confusion of thoughts began to move together. How can this be? What does it mean? What will it be? Not safe. Not right. Dangerous. Unnatural. Monstrous. An abomination. We can't allow it. The pack was pacing in synchronization now, thinking in synchronization, all but myself and one other. I sat beside whichever brother it was, too dazed to look over with either my eyes or my mind and see who was next to me, while the pack circled around us. The treaty does not cover this. This puts everyone in danger. I tried to understand the spiraling voices, tried to follow the curling pathway the thoughts made to see where they were leading, but it wasn't making sense. The pictures in the center of their thoughts were my pictures Ã¢â¬â the very worst of them. Bella's bruises, Edward's face as he burned. They fear it, too. But they won't do anything about it Protecting Bella Swan. We can't let that influence us. The safety of our families, of everyone here, is more important than one human. If they won't kill it, we have to. Protect the tribe. Protect our families. We have to kill it before it's too late. Another of my memories, Edward's words this time: The thing is growing. Swiftly. I struggled to focus, to pick out individual voices. No time to waste,Jared thought. It will mean a fight,Embry cautioned. A bad one. Were ready,Paul insisted. Well need surprise on our side,Sam thought. If we catch them divided, we can take them down separately. It will increase our chances of victory, Jared thought, starting to strategize now. I shook my head, rising slowly to my feet. 1 felt unsteady there Ã¢â¬â like the circling wolves were making me dizzy. The wolf beside me got up, too. His shoulder pushed against mine, propping me up. Wait,I thought. The circling paused for one beat, and then they were pacing again. There's little time,Sam said. But Ã¢â¬â what are you thinking? You wouldn't attack them for breaking the treaty this afternoon. Now you're planning an ambush, when the treaty is still intact? This is not something our treaty anticipated,Sam said. This is a danger to every human in the area. We don't know what kind of creature the Cullens have bred, but we know that it is strong and fast-growing. And it will be too young to follow any treaty. Remember the newborn vampires we fought? Wild, violent, beyond the reach of reason or restraint. Imagine one like that, but protected by the Cullens. We don't know Ã¢â¬â I tried to interrupt. Wedon't know, he agreed. And we can't take chances with the unknown in this case. We can only allow the Cullens to exist while we're absolutely sure that they can be trusted not to cause harm. This. . . thing cannot be trusted. They don't like it any more than we do. Sam pulled Rosalie's face, her protective crouch, from my mind and put it on display for everyone. Some are ready to fight for it, no matter what it is. It's just ababy, for crying out loud. Not for long,Leah whispered. Jake, buddy, this is a big problem,Quil said. We can't just ignore it. You're making it into something bigger than it is,I argued. The only one who's in danger here is Bella. Again by her own choice,Sam said. But this time her choice affects us all. I don't think so. We can't take that chance. We won't allow a blood drinker to hunt on our lands. Then tell them to leave,the wolf who was still supporting me said. It was Seth. Of course. And inflict the menace on others? When blood drinkers cross our land, we destroy them, no matter where they plan to hunt. We protect everyone we can. This is crazy,I said. This afternoon you were afraid to put the pack in danger. This afternoon I didn't know our families were at risk. I can't believe this! How're you going to kill this creature without killing Bella? There were no words, but the silence was full of meaning. I howled. She's human, too! Doesn't our protection apply to her? She's dying anyway,Leah thought. We'll just shorten the process. That did it. I leaped away from Seth, toward his sister, with my teeth bared. I was about to catch her left hind leg when I felt Sam's teeth cut into my flank, dragging me back. I howled in pain and fury and turned on him. Stop!he ordered in the double timbre of the Alpha. My legs seemed to buckle under me. I jerked to a halt, only managing to keep on my feet by sheer willpower. He turned his gaze away from me. You will not be cruel to him, Leah, he commanded her. Bella's sacrifice is a heavy price, and we will all recognize that It is against everything we stand for to take a human life. Making an exception to that code is a bleak thing. We will all mourn for what we do tonight. Tonight?Seth repeated, shocked. Sam Ã¢â¬â think we should talk about this some more. Consult with the Elders, at least. You can't seriously mean for us to Ã¢â¬â We can't afford your tolerance for the Cullens now. There is no time for debate. Youwilldo as you are told, Seth. SetfYs front knees folded, and his head fell forward under the weight of the Alpha's command. Sam paced in a tight circle around the two of us. We need the whole pack for this. Jacob, you are our strongest fighter. Youwillfight with us tonight. I understand that this is hard for you, so you will concentrate on their fighters Ã¢â¬â Emmett and Jasper Cullen. You don't have to be involved with theÃ¢â¬ ¦ other part. Quil and Embry will fight with you. My knees trembled; I struggled to hold myself upright while the voice of the Alpha lashed at my will. Paul, Jared, and I will take on Edward and Rosalie. I think, from the information Jacob has brought us, they will be the ones guarding Bella. Carlisle and Alice will also be close, possibly Esme. Brady, Collin, Seth, and Leah will concentrate on them. Whoever has a clear lineon Ã¢â¬â we all heard him mentally stutter overBella's name Ã¢â¬â the creature will take it. Destroying the creature is our first priority. The pack rumbled in nervous agreement.The tension had everyone's fur standing on end. The pacing was quicker, and the sound of the paws against the brackish floor was sharper, toenails tearing into the soil. Only Seth and I were still, the eye in the center of a storm of bared teeth and flattened ears. Seth's nose was almost touching the ground, bowed under Sam's commands. I felt his pain at the coming disloyalty. For him this was a betrayal Ã¢â¬â during that one day of alliance, fighting beside Edward Cullen, Seth had truly become the vampire's friend. There was no resistance in him, however. He would obey no matter how much it hurt him. He had no other choice. And what choice did I have? When the Alpha spoke, the pack followed. Sam had never pushed his authority this far before; I knew he honestly hated to see Seth kneeling before him like a slave at the foot of his master. He wouldn't force this if he didn't believe that he had no other choice. He couldn't lie to us when we were linked mind to mind like this. He really believed it was our duty to destroy Bella and the monster she carried. He really believed we had no time to waste. He believed it enough to die for it. I saw that he would face Edward himself; Edward's ability to read our thoughts made him the greatest threat in Sam's mind. Sam would not let someone else take on that danger. He saw Jasper as the second-greatest opponent, which is why he'd given him to me. He knew that I had the best chance of any of the pack to win that fight. He'd left the easiest targets for the younger wolves and Leah. Little Alice was no danger without her future vision to guide her, and we knew from our time of alliance that Esme was not a fighter. Carlisle would be more of a challenge, but his hatred of violence would hinder him. I felt sicker than Seth as I watched Sam plan it out, trying to work the angles to give each member of the pack the best chance of survival. Everything was inside out. This afternoon, I'd been chomping at the bit to attack them. But Seth had been right Ã¢â¬â it wasn't a fight I'd been ready for. I'd blinded myself with that hate. I hadn't let myself look at it carefully, because I must have known what I would see if I did. Carlisle Cullen. Looking at him without that hate clouding my eyes, I couldn't deny that killing him was murder. He was good. Good as any human we protected. Maybe better. The others, too, I supposed, but I didn't feel as strongly about them. I didn't know them as well. It was Carlisle who would hate fighting back, even to save his own life. That's why we would be able to kill him Ã¢â¬â because he wouldn't want us, his enemies, to die. This was wrong. And it wasn't just because killing Bella felt like killing me, like suicide. Pull it together, Jacob,Sam ordered. The tribe comes first I was wrong today, Sam. Your reasons were wrong then. But now we have a duty to fulfill. I braced myself. No. Sam snarled and stopped pacing in front of me. He stared into my eyes and a deep growl slid between his teeth. Yes,the Alpha decreed, his double voice blistering with the heat of his authority. There are no loopholes tonight. You, Jacob, are going to fight the Cullens with us. You, with Quil and Embry, will take care of Jasper and Emmett. You are obligated to protect the tribe. That is why you exist. You willperform this obligation. My shoulders hunched as the edict crushed me. My legs collapsed, and I was on my belly under him. No member of the pack could refuse the Alpha.